Sabtu, 20 Februari 2010

KADAR PERNAFASAN MANUSIA (‘HUMAN BREATHING RATE’)


Kadar pernafasan manusia atau kadar respirasi manusia adalah jumlah tarikan nafas manusia, dalam sesuatu masa (dikenali sebagai tarikan nafas per minit).
[‘Human Breathing Rate or Respiratory rate (RR) is the number of breaths a human being, takes within a certain amount of time (frequently given in breaths per minute).']

Kadar respirasi dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor seperti menangis, tidur, penuaan dan umur.
(‘It has also been reported that factors such as crying, sleeping, agitation and age have a significant influence on the respiratory rate.’)

Pengukuran (‘Measurement’)
Kadar respirasi manusia diukur pada ketika seseorang dalam keadaan rehat dan melibatkan pengiraan bilangan tarikan nafas dalam seminit, mengira berapa kali dada bergerak ke atas.
(‘The human respiration rate is usually measured when a person is at rest and simply involves counting the number of breathes for one minute by counting how many times the chest rises.’)

Purata kadar respirasi, mengikut umur :
(‘Average respiratory rates, by age’)

Contoh (‘Examples’)
Kanak-kanak umur 5 tahun sedang duduk (Frekuensi Pernafasan : 23/60 Hz)
[‘5-year-old child sitting (Breathing frequency : 23⁄60 Hz’)]
Dewasa lelaki sedang duduk (Frekuensi Pernafasan : 12/60 Hz)
[‘Adult male sitting (Breathing frequency : 12⁄60 Hz)’]

RESPIROMETER


Contoh Respirometer
(‘Example of Repirometer’)

Respirometer merupakan alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur kadar pernafasan benda hidup dengan mengurku kadar pertukaran gas oksigen dan/atau karbon dioksida. Melihat dan menyiasat bagaimana faktor-faktor seperti umur, bahan kimia atau kesan cahaya mempengaruhi kadar respirasi.
(‘A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.’)

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